22. How steel is used in buildings and infrastructure?
The possibilities for using steel in buildings and infrastructure are limitless. The most common applications are listed below.For buildingsStructural sections: these provide a strong, stiff frame for the building and make up 25% of the steel use in buildings.Reinforcing bars: these add tensile strength and stiffness to concrete and make up 44% of steel use in buildings. Steel is used because it binds well to concrete, has a similar thermal expansion coefficient and is strong and relatively cost-effective. Reinforced concrete is also used to provide deep foundations and basements and is currently the world’s primary building material.Sheet products: 31% is in sheet products such as roofing, purlins, internal walls, ceilings, cladding, and insulating panels for exterior walls.Non-structural steel: steel is also found in many non-structural applications in buildings, such as heating and cooling equipment and interior ducting.Internal fixtures and fittings such as rails, shelving and stairs are also made of steel. For infrastructureTransport networks: steel is required for bridges, tunnels, rail track and in constructing buildings such as fueling stations, train stations, ports and airports. About 60% of steel use in this application is as rebar and the rest is sections, plates and rail track.Utilities (fuel, water, power): over 50% of the steel used for this application is in underground pipelines to distribute water to and from housing, and to distribute gas. The rest is mainly rebar for power stations and pumping houses.